Digital technologies have a strong impact on changes in the educational environment and activities. In the context of such changes, aggravated by the spread of coronavirus infection and the transition of schools to distance learning, teachers and students are facing the need to actively master digital tools and educational platforms. The authors aim at analyzing the professional gaps of teachers associated with digital literacy and the ability to effectively use digital technologies in educational activities. The conducted sociological research and the results obtained allow the authors to study the existing internal teachers’ gaps and show the main problems in the organization of educational activities in the context of the transition to distance learning and the existing gaps in the use of digital technologies by school teachers. Based on the results of the study, the authors have identified the key areas of the professional development of teachers. They have developed educational programs aimed at skill development and further training of teachers in the Russian Federation and foreign countries on such topics as the digital educational environment and the use of open educational resources, methods of using digital technologies in the organization of educational activities, methods and techniques of organization feedback, pedagogical communication in the digital environment, and information security and ethics in the digital environment. The authors have determined the conditions for the professional development of teachers in the process of skill development and further training, as well as self-education (including spontaneous training in the workplace).The authors believe that the increase in teachers’ digital literacy, based on filling their professional gaps, will help to improve the quality of general education and create conditions for the elimination of the digital divide of the population.