With the spread of inclusive education, new requirements are imposed on a teacher, including their readiness to teach, educate, and help with the development of children with special educational needs. Scholars recognize the need to amend the training of general education teachers (primary school teachers and subject teachers) to form their readiness to teach school children with disabilities. The study presents an analysis of modern Russian research on this issue using methods of analysis, systematization, and comparison of modern approaches to teacher training for inclusive education of children with disabilities. The study reveals Russian scholars’ understanding of the term “readiness for inclusive education of children with disabilities” and a list of professional and personal qualities, value-semantic guidelines, and professional competencies that an inclusive education teacher should have. Scientific approaches to the training of such a specialist (competency-based, integrated) and proposed forms of education are critically analyzed, and issues of content and new technologies used in preparing a teacher for this type of professional activity (contextual, project-based learning) are considered. The study reveals the shortcomings of the modern situation in the preparation of a general school teacher for inclusive teaching of children with disabilities, and the authors’ view on changing the form of such training is proposed. As a result of the analysis, prospects for further research in the field of teacher training for inclusive education of children with disabilities are highlighted.