The article presents the authors' experience in developing and applying criteria for assessing the results of the educational activities of students in the system of contemporary education. The necessity and expediency of its implementation are justified by the actual difficulty of objective assessment of the quality of educational results; reduction of the motivating function of the five-point assessment; as well as natural and personal uniqueness of each student as a subject of educational activity. The analysis of domestic and foreign studies on the problem of criteria- based assessment of learning results in the system of general and higher education shows that despite various approaches to the criteria-based assessment of learning results, the methodology of its development is not sufficiently covered in pedagogical science and practice. The present research aims to develop a pedagogically appropriate methodology for constructing a criteria-based assessment of the results of students' educational activities. This methodology includes several interrelated actions: establishing three levels of students' mastering of the content of each discipline; developing quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics of each level; ensuring methodological development of requirements for each task; bringing to the attention of students the content of each level of mastering of the main educational program. An important condition is the ability to repeatedly correct each task to bring it to the highest possible level of perfection. The leading methodological position is given to the idea of the human’s inherent desire for success and to be the first. As the results of the conducted study show, the implementation of the proposed methodology naturally leads to an enhancement of the education quality, which is reliable proof of its scientific novelty.