Theoretical and practical development of the problem of students’ adaptation in a foreign language and multicultural society is one of the key problems of the academic mobility development of the individual throughout life. The need to solve this problem is determined by the socio- cultural dynamics of education development in the context of its global shifts, transformations, and systemic changes. The purpose of the article is to conduct a theoretical analysis of the problem of students' adaptation in the foreign language and multicultural society of the metropolis. The article deals with the problem of cross-cultural adaptation of foreign students in Russian universities to the foreign language and multicultural social medium of the metropolis. The phenomenon of cross-cultural adaptation is studied on an interdisciplinary basis. The authors consider the theoretical approaches to the study of various aspects of cross-cultural adaptation of a person to a foreign language and multicultural society, as well as analyze the educational opportunities and potential of intercultural interaction based on the dialogue of cultures as a mechanism underlying the process of adaptation of students in the foreign language and multicultural society of the metropolis. According to the authors, the success of foreign students’ education is also determined by their readiness to accept the entire cultural diversity of the foreign-speaking world and foreign language culture, as well as their tolerant attitude toward them. The article highlights and characterizes the main directions and specific content of students’ adaptation to foreign language and multicultural society. The authors conclude that cross-cultural adaptation can be an effective way for foreign students to enter the new socio-cultural conditions of the foreign language and multicultural society of the metropolis.